History of Insulin
Before the discovery of insulin, patients with diabetes died at a very young age. By experiment in the late nineteenth century discovered that diabetics have a deficiency of insulin hormone and its source is the pancreas (mixed endocrine gland), which secretes digestive juices and some hormones such as insulin, glucagon, somatoststin, Pancreatic ploypeptide.
Many research was conducted with pancreatic secretion without success. Later, two physicians, Frederick Banting and Charles Best, came up with an effective solution. They were able to discover insulin in 1921.
First diabetes Patients who treated by insulin
Leonard Thomson is the first Diabetes Patient to be treated with insulin. After that, diabetes Mellitus is no longer a serious disease but a controllable disease.
Type of Insulin
Studies have shown that it is not just a matter of starting treatment with insulin or oral anti-hypoglycemic medication. It is very important that the patient’s blood glucose level is under control throughout the day.
That is, on an empty stomach, before meal more than or equal 7 mmol/liter before eating at night and 8-10 mmol / liter after eating in the morning and at night. The average diabetes HBA1C will be below 7%. As early you start treatment with insulin, the more likely it is to keep the pancreas healthy and safe that protect beta cell from destruction. Blood sugar can be easily and smothly controlled with insulin, which is difficult with oral anti-hypoglycemic medication.
There is a common misconception that insulin is the last resort for diabetics. The truth is, insulin is not the last resort for the treatment of diabetes Mellitus, but It is the best treatment of Diabetes Mellitus than oral anti-hypoglycemic medication.
Different types of insulin are available in the market. Based on the chemical composition, some have been developed as
- short-acting insulin
- medium-acting insulin, and some as
- long-acting insulin
with the aim of controlling blood sugar throughout the day. These insulins are given to the patient in a specific dose two, three and four times a day. in many cases the two types of insulin are combined Which are called premixed insulin.
Normally our body secretes two types of insulin.
- Basal Insulin (act on 24 hour, Long acting)
- Bolus insulin (short acting, Post meal acting)
In order to control the glucose that is produced by the body in the state of starvation, a kind of insulin will be released even if it is starved all day long. This insulin is called basal insulin. Again, when we eat food, whatever the food, whatever the amount, that food is stored in the body as glucose. After eating, glucose enters the bloodstream, and insulin is secreted from the pancreas to control it. This insulin is called bolus insulin, which regulates post-meal glucose. Although these two types of insulin are produced in the right amount in the body of a healthy person, it is deficient in Diabetes patients. As a result, their sugars are out of control.
Indications of Insulin :
Insulin used following conditions –
- Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
- Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus which which are not response to oral drugs
- Diabetic Ketoacidosis,
- Any complication by Diabetes.
- Hyperkalaemia etc.