Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: sign,symptoms,investigations,and treatment

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS):

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome may be a health condition that affects about 10 core people within the world.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome : cause,  sign and symptoms and management
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?

The actual cause is unknown, but it’s considered a hormonal disorder. Genetics and environmental factors are believed to be involved within the development of PCOS. it’s a primary explanation for female infertility and is liable for variety of symptoms which will affect the body physically and emotionally.
 In spite of the name, many of us don’t have cysts on their ovaries.
Hormones involved in PCOS include:


All females produce androgens but there are often higher levels of androgens in women with PCOS. the surplus androgens are produced mainly by the ovaries, but the adrenal glands of kidney also can be involved. Excess androgens are liable for many PCOS symptoms including acne, male type hair, thinning hair, and abnormal periods.


This hormone allows the body to soak up blood glucose [glucose] into the cells for energy. In PCOS, the body isn’t as aware of insulin because it should be. this will cause increased blood sugar levels and cause the body to form excess insulin. Excess insulin can cause the body to supply more androgens.


in PCOS, Decrease amount of progesterone hormone cause irregular periods.

PCOS Symptoms

Symptoms of PCOS may begin gradually after puberty, but also can develop during subsequent teen years and middle-aged women.
Some time are often undiagnosed.
People with PCOS typically present with Irregular period or irregular menstruation or miss period   as a results of failure of ovulation. Although some people may develop cysts on their ovaries, many of us don’t develop cyst on their ovaries.

Weight gain

About 50% of people with PCOS will have weight gain and obesity that’s hard to manage.


Many people of PCOS  has fatigue and low energy. Related issues like insomnia may contribute to the sensation of fatigue.

Unwanted Hair Growth (Hirsutism)

Areas suffering from abnormal hair growth may include the face, arms, chest,back thumbs, toes etc. Hirsutism  closely associated with PCOS is thanks to hormonal changes in androgens.
Thinning hair on the Scalp. Hair loss or alopecia(Hair loss or alopecia Treatment)associated with PCOS may increase in early adulthood.


PolyCystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCO)  is one among the main explanation for female infertility. Some people need to fertility treatment ,and other maybe conceive naturally.


Hormonal changes associated with androgens can cause acne problems.

Mood changes

Having PCOS can increase the likelihood of mood swings, depressiondepression, and anxiety.

Pelvic Pain

Pelvic pain may occur with periods, along side heavy bleeding. it’s going to also occur when a lady isn’t bleeding.


Hormonal changes aggravate headaches.


People with PCOS often report problems like insomnia or poor sleep. There are many risk factor which will affect sleep, but PCOS has been linked to a disorder called apnea. With apnea, an individual will stop breathing for brief periods of your time during sleep.
Read more: Family Planning Method

Cure of PCOS

There is no cure  but there are some ways to  decrease or eliminate PCOS symptoms and feel better.  Doctor  may offer different medicines or drugs which will treat symptoms like irregular periods, excess hair, acne, and increased blood glucose. Fertility treatments are prescribed to assist women get pregnant. Losing as little as five percent  excess weight can help women ovulate more regularly and lessen other PCOS symptoms. the perfect thanks to do that is through nutrition and exercise regularly
You may feel that it’s difficult to decrease  excess weight and keep it off, but it’s important to continue the trouble for better  result. Your efforts help reduce the danger for developing serious health complications which will impact women with PCOS much before women without PCOS. the most important health concerns are diabetes, heart disease, and stroke because PCOS is linked to having high vital sign, pre-diabetes, and high cholesterol level.

What is an ovarian cyst?

The definition of a cyst may be a fluid-filled sac. Cysts can occur anywhere within the body. With PCOS, women can develop “cysts” thanks to eggs not being released over time. The follicles continue to grow and form multiple “cysts.” These could also be described as appearing sort of a “string of pearls” in an ultrasound image.
Despite the name, women with PCOS don’t got to have ovarian cysts. Women without PCOS may develop cysts associated with other reasons. The commonest sort of cyst is named a functional cyst.
These cysts are called as “functional” because they often develop during the cycle. There are 2 types:
Follicular cysts: These usually get away on their own in 1 to 3 months. These form when an egg doesn’t get release needless to say, therefore the follicle keeps growing.
Corpus luteum cysts: These also usually get away on their own. These form after the follicle ruptures and releases the egg (ovulation). The follicle reseals and fluid starts to buildup within it. they will enlarge and cause pain, bleed, or twist the ovary. Fertility medicines wont to promote ovulation (such as clomiphene) can increase the probabilities of developing these sort of cysts.
Ovarian cysts also can be related  with endometriosis, or formed from the outer surface of the ovary (cystadenomas), or formed with non-ovarian tissue [dermoid cysts].
Sources: Office of Women’s Health, Department of Health and Human Services. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Laboratory investigation of PCOS :

  • Thyroid functuon test
  • Serum testosterone level
  • Blood sugar level
  • Lipid profile
  •  Serum luteinizing hormone
  • Serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone
  • 24 hour Urinary free cortisol
  • Serum prolactin level
  • Pelvic imaging(pelvic CT scan)
  • Biopsy

Treatment of PCOS:

Treat the patients under hormone specialist  or endocrinologist doctors
  • Diet
  • Exercise
  • Weight loss
  • Metformin
  • Clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction
  • Menotrophin 75 IU FSH +75IU LH
  • Supportive treatment
  • Oral contraceptive agent :cyproterone acetate with ethinyl estradiol or medroxy progesterone acetate
  • Anti-Androgen such as : Spinorolactone ,finasteride.
  • Oral hypoglycemic drugs : metformin, insulin .
  •  Topical agent for acne:  benzoyl peroxide,tretinoin topical cream,clindamycin ,erythromycin etc.
Author :
Md Noman Islam Nirob
MBBS Students
Rangpur medical College, Bangladesh
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