Jaundice: Type,sign, symptoms,and management

Definition of jaundice

It is a clinical condition described by yellow discolouration of skin,  sclera and mucous membrane due to increase serum bilirubin more than 3mg/dl. 

Type of Jaundice

  1. Prehepatic / hemolytic jaundice
  2. Hepatic /hepatocellular jaundice
  3. Post hepatic/obstructive jaundice 
Prehepatic or hemolytic jaundice occurs due to breakdown  of Red Blood Cell and hepatic uptake of bilirubin or impaired bilirubin conjugation. 
  • Hemolytic anaemia 
  • Thalassaemia
  • Pernicious anaemia
  • Gilbert syndrome
  • Crigler-Najjar Syndrome
  • Neonatal jaundice 
  • Drug induced- Rifampicine
Hepatic or hepatocellular jaundice :
  • Viral Hepatitis due to viral infection such as Hepatitis A virus
  • Hepatitis B virus 
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Hepatitis D virus
  • Hepatitis E virus
  • Epstein Bar virus
  • Cytomegalo virus
  • Dengue virus etc
  • Drug induced- Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide, phenothiazines
  • Wilson’s disease 
  • Hemochromatosis 
  • Dubin johnson syndrome
  • Rotor syndrome
Obstructive or post hepatic jaundice : this type of jaundice occurs due to obstruction of normal bilirubin pathway.
  • Carcinoma of head of pancreas 
  • Stone in bile duct or choledocolithiasis
  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Periampulary carcinoma
  • Alcoholic hepatitis 
  • Pregnancy 
  • Biliary atresia
  • Worm in Bile duct
  • Sclerosing cholangitis
  • Biliary cirrhosis 
Congenital hyperbilirubinaemia(non haemolytic)
  • Gilbert’s syndrome
  • Crigler najjar syndrome
  • Dubin jhonson syndrome 
  • Rotor’s syndrome
Sign and symptoms of Jaundice and important point for diagnosis of jaundice 
  • Yellow coloration of eye(sclera), skin,  tongue,  palm and sole
  • Nausea  
  • Vomiting 
  • Anorexia
  • Yellowish, pale or dark color stool
  • Yellow color urine
  • Itching in Obstructive jaundice 
  • Consanguinity marriage (genetic jaundice) 
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